But the most important obstacle to treating musicology as hard science, as is so often when someone boringly tries to naturalize cultural processes, is that the study obfuscates as much as it reveals. The "evolution" of music has been genetically modified throughout the last century by the music industry. Record companies have long been known to manipulate and sway the ratings, not to mention deciding who gets to make what kind of music in the first place by selecting for those "non-musical factors" like ethnicity, gender, age, weight, hair, and on and on. The report states: "we did not attempt to obtain a representative sample of all the songs that were released in the USA in that period of time, but just those that were most commercially successful." As a result, this study does not demonstrate that musical innovation spiked or that styles diversified at certain times. It won't tell you about the emergence of rock steady in Kingston; it will only tell you about the products of a profit-driven US-dominated industry with its own inherent bias, without exposing this bias to scrutiny. If human activity is now understood as a direct influence on the evolution (and extinction) of other species, corporate influence is the natural environment that shapes the evolution of culture, according to the researchers' definition. Anthropocene; Corporatocene.